Design and Construction of Chinese Style Antique Villa Architecture
As a unique architectural style, Chinese style antique villa architecture is highly praised in the field of modern architecture. Based on the style of ancient Chinese architecture, it is redesigned and rebuilt through modern building materials and techniques, giving the building not only a classical aesthetic, but also a sense of history and culture.
Generally speaking, the design requirements of Chinese style antique villa buildings strictly follow the characteristics and requirements of ancient architecture in terms of structure, materials, color, decoration, and other aspects.
For the design of Chinese style antique villa buildings, in addition to these main aspects, designers also need to consider the actual usage needs and modernization needs of the building, so that antique buildings are not just old buildings with a sense of history, but modern buildings that combine art and practicality.
Chinese style antique villa architecture also helps to inherit and promote the excellent traditional Chinese culture. The architectural aesthetics, cultural spirit, and social traditions reflected in ancient architecture are still what modern society looks up to. Therefore, in the field of modern architectural design, the pursuit, innovation, and reconstruction of antique architecture have extremely high practical significance and cultural value.
Chinese style antique villa architecture has become an extremely important architectural style in the field of modern architectural design, not only contributing outstanding value from various aspects such as architectural aesthetics and cultural inheritance, but also creating a high-quality, comfortable, and historical modern residential space for people.
The Theory That Man Is An Integral Part Of Nature In Ancient Chinese Architecture
"The great overall layout of Chinese architecture has already reached its highest level, combining a deep sense of humility towards nature with a noble poetic atmosphere to form an organic pattern that no culture can surpass." This is the evaluation of Chinese architecture by British scholar Joseph Needham. The Chinese nation upholds nature, emphasizing the connection and unity between the Heavenly Way and Humanity, as well as between nature and humans, both in the Confucian "Heavenly Man Interaction" and the Taoist "Law of Nature".
The theory that man is an integral part of nature has been the core ideology and spiritual essence of the Chinese nation for thousands of years, referring to the close connection and indivisibility of the relationship between heaven and man. Harmony with nature is the universal meaning of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism.
Unlike Western architecture, which is made of brick and stone, ancient Chinese architecture uses wood as its raw material. In the history of world architecture, ancient Chinese wooden frame architecture is unique and unparalleled. In ancient China, it was believed that gold, wood, water, fire, and earth were the five substances that make up the world. It was believed that wood originated from the earth and thrived endlessly, symbolizing strong vitality. The saying goes, "One Yin and one Yang are the Tao." The ancients believed that trees bear the rain and dew from the sky, grow towards the sun, and are nurtured by the earth. They are the product of the combination of Yin and Yang, and are the best materials for architecture.
The ancient Chinese believed that architecture utilized and transformed nature. After stone mining, it is not renewable, while trees are still renewable in the nourishment of heaven and earth. Therefore, the ancient people were influenced by the idea of "The theory that man is an integral part of nature" in the selection of building materials.
The diverse forms of architecture are also the result of ancient people coordinating nature. China has a vast territory, with different geographical locations and climate environments. Under the influence of different geographical features, ancient Chinese architecture with different styles has emerged.
How to distinguish the quality of brick carvings?
Antique architectural products such as gray tiles and brick carvings can be seen in various regions, places, and major scenic spots. When choosing products that are dazzling in the market, it is important to be careful when choosing.
Firstly, in terms of quality selection, we must consider whether the service life of brick carvings is long or not, and durable products are the choice we always want to pursue.
Secondly, we must face up to the quality of brick carvings. The common identification method is to judge the quality of products by Test effort the water absorption, or by knocking the products according to the sound. We can also distinguish the quality of products by scraping the brick surface.
The grey bricks, Chinese glazed roof tile, brick carvings, wooden pavilions and other antique building materials produced by Luoyang Dannuo Gardens provide high-quality services for major scenic spots, domestic and foreign projects, and welcome people in need from all walks of life to visit.
Six Aspects to Pay Attention to When Purchasing China Clay Roof Tiles
1. Size error: When purchasing Chinese clay roof tiles, we should pay attention to the inspection of specifications. Products with size error greater than 0.5mm and surface flatness greater than 0.1mm are unqualified products, which will affect the difficulty of construction. At the same time, it also affects the effect after decoration.
2. Color difference: Because the surface color of Chinese clay roof tiles is rich, and each batch of Chinese clay roof tiles is difficult to ensure the same color of the bricks due to various reasons, when the quantity of Chinese clay roof tiles is large at one time, It is necessary to compare the color difference to prevent the obvious color difference of Chinese clay roof tile, and affect the overall effect of the decoration.
3. Water absorption of China clay roof tile: The purchase of China clay roof tile should pay attention to its water absorption, high quality green tile, water absorption is very low. The green white with high water absorption rate will crack the surface and spalling the whole wall after heat expansion and cold contraction. If the water absorption rate of China clay roof tile is not indicated, tea and water droplets can be used on the back of the brick, and the degree of diffusion can be observed after a few minutes. The less water absorption, the lower the water absorption rate and the better the quality.
4. Texture density of China clay roof tile; From the side, observe whether the surface of the offering brick is flat, whether there are pinholes and uneven fine, and listen to whether the sound of China clay roof tile is crisp, which indicates that the texture of the brick is high density and better hardness.
5. Product qualification certificate and product material inspection report.
Confucian Cultural Elements in Chinese Ancient Architecture
As an important part of Chinese traditional culture, Confucian culture has a significant impact on the construction system of Chinese ancient buildings. It is clearly embodied in the Chinese ancient architecture hierarchy, architectural aesthetic design system, the inertial thinking of architectural construction system, and the teaching methods of architectural construction technology. At present, there are some problems in Chinese architectural construction, such as formalism, lack of characteristics and awareness of fine works. In the process of solving these problems, the Confucian cultural elements in China's ancient architecture construction system and their embodiment can provide us with corresponding enlightenment.
Chinese ancient architecture, rooted in profound traditional culture and superb architectural technology, is broad and profound, and its unique and touching charm occupies a very important position in the history of world architecture. "Architecture is a solidified history". To some extent, Chinese ancient architecture is a condensed historical book of China. Chinese ancient architecture has concentrated traditional politics, economy, culture, philosophy, ethics and other concepts, and has become an important part of Chinese traditional culture. While reflecting architectural technology, it actually reflects Chinese traditional culture to a greater extent.
Therefore, architecture is the external manifestation of culture and the concentrated representation of the deep core of culture. Architecture records the process of cultural and historical development, and culture becomes the soul of architecture. As an important part of China's traditional culture, Confucian culture has a significant impact on China's ancient architecture construction system, and has great enlightenment on the development of China's architecture construction.
Confucius believed that people's "benevolence" should not be limited to the scope of "affinity", but should be extended from relatives to all members of the society from the monarch to the common people. According to Confucianism, this subjective emotional state of "benevolence" should also be externalized, that is, "benevolence" should be embodied in people's behavior norms, and the most important norm is the feudal patriarchal system. In fact, China's ancient building construction system has very significantly reflected the feudal patriarchal system, which reflects the profound influence of Confucian culture on the building construction system.
Confucianism has had a profound impact on the construction system of Chinese ancient architecture. The development and evolution of Chinese ancient architecture is in accordance with the requirements of Confucianism. In ancient times, there was no fixed architectural system, and no rules and regulations related to architecture were formed.
Chinese style garden
The development of the Chinese garden has a long history. The style of the landscape architecture and technology has become an important part of human culture heritage. Only truly understand the nature of Chinese gardens, can use in ancient times, created to meet the requirements of modern Chinese garden.
Concept of courtyard design not only represents the Chinese architecture, and expressing a kind of life style and attitude. Combined with our life, dream and reality, give up the old thinking and idea, starting a new way of life and future. As a result, more and more people choose Chinese style garden design style, the Chinese garden design is close to nature, to get people to relax, in a comfortable and comfortable living environment.
Create natural scenery. Chinese classical garden embodies the nature landscape. In the garden, not just to imitate nature, but nature, summarizes the true mountain true water, become the freehand brushwork in traditional Chinese landscape poetry.
Since the ancient times, Chinese garden has left many of the typical representatives, including jiangnan gardens, lingnan garden and private garden in Beijing. The largest number among them, the jiangnan home garden, the highest level.
Jiangnan garden much affected by poetry and painting. These little garden one or two acres, big man has more than ten acres. According to the situation, they can be combined with the architecture, chisel pool heap mountain, elite stand and flowers.They pay special attention to adjust measures to local conditions, reasonable layout of rock, water fountains, flowers and trees, building elements such as, reach, though they are artificial and natural open effect.
Most of jiangnan garden with landscape as the theme. So-called water with the mountains, the mountains live because of water. In the garden digging pool heap mountain, in order to reflect the steep mountain, often on the slope pile of stone peaks, different attractions arrangement at the water's edge distance, natural winding.
Jiangnan garden area is lesser. Landscape construction, adopt more obstacles, borrow scene, look up, extend and increase the garden road rolling method, using, high and low, linear, virtual reality, such as size, contrast, achieve the goal of expanding space, small in see big effect.
Jiangnan garden plants in configuration, very pay attention to the shape, color, fragrance of flowers and trees and seasonal characteristics. Corner in the courtyard, the corridor side, wall of small space, choose match the peak stone flowers and trees, forming a small scene, walk landscape, feast for the eyes.
There is a wide variety of flowers and trees in the garden, and had no configuration just type, as long as the configuration is proper, can become a scenery line.
Chinese classical garden selected HuaMuChang used to express the feelings of people, give flowers and trees a give flowers and trees some unique personality, jade pine, bamboo; mangnolia, Chinese flowering crabapple, peony, osmanthus as wealth. These unique configuration continues today.
China, known as the mother of gardens, is rich in flowers and trees. Flowers and trees grow well only in the right place. At the same time, the layout of flowers and trees is not much but careful. According to different characteristics and hobbies, different trees can be selected to form different landscape characteristics and give full play to the visual effect of their form and color.
Basic Cultural Attributes of Chinese Ancient Buildings
First of all, the wooden frame is the primary feature of ancient Chinese architecture: that is, on the basis of the breadth and depth of the house, stone foundations are set, then columns are set on the stone foundations, and then beams are erected on the columns, that is, "four beams and eight columns" are connected between beams and columns. The beams and beams are supported by frames, purlins and rafters, which support and rely on each other. The weight of the roof or floor is supported by the wooden frame, and then transmitted to the wooden columns through the beam frame, and the wooden columns are transmitted to the ground, In addition, the use of tenon and mortise structure and bucket arch technology makes this wooden structure have the function of resisting external forces, thus becoming a building form with complex structure, strict technology, solid and firm structure and "no house collapses".
Secondly, in line with the form of wooden frame, ancient buildings have formed some basic features:
1, the foundation of the building. The platform base is higher than the ground, moisture-proof and rainproof, which can heighten and foil the building's prestige. The more important the building is, the higher the platform will be. With the help of the scattered platforms, the single-layer buildings gathered together form the appearance of a large building similar to a multi-storey pavilion, which is magnificent and precipitous.
2, the arch and eaves. The eaves of ancient buildings extend far, which not only protects the rammed earth foundation, earth walls and peripheral wooden columns from rain erosion, but also increases the level of houses. The far-reaching eaves are carried out by brackets. The more far-reaching the eaves are, the more layers of brackets will be. Dougong, a building component, not only has structural functions, but also has a strong decorative role.
3, roofs of various shapes. The roof shape is the most artistic part. Under the patriarchal system, it is also the main symbol to measure the level of buildings. The order of rank from high to low is the Wudian Roof （庑殿顶）, Xieshan Roof（歇山顶）, Xuanshan Rof（悬山顶）and Yingshan Roof（硬山顶） . The double eaves of the Cunsheng roof are higher than the single eaves.
4, roof ridge animals and oil decoration culture. At both ends of the ridge of some large ancient buildings, dragon, phoenix, lion, Tianma, seahorse, lion dragon, fish, mistletoe, bullfight and other animals are installed according to the ritual system. Wooden buildings are moistureproof and anti-corrosion. At the same time, in order to increase the aesthetic appearance, they are generally painted and decorated with color. The patterns and colors of architectural color paintings were strictly prescribed in ancient times.
Why do ancient Chinese buildings first see a wall when opening the gate?
When some ancient buildings entered the gate, they could not see the house but found a wall. What was the use of this wall? It is an important element of traditional Chinese architecture - screen wall. The screen wall, also known as the illumination wall in ancient times, is a wall used to block the view in traditional Chinese architecture. The screen wall can be located inside or outside the gate. The former is called the inner screen wall and the latter is called the outer screen wall. The shape of a figure, figure eight, etc., is usually built by brick, by the seat, the body, the top of the three parts.
The screen wall inside the gate is to block people's sight, not to let people easily see the courtyard, so as to maintain the concealment and quiet inside the building.
The material of the wall:
Glazed film walls: Mainly used in imperial palaces and temples, the most representative is the Palace Museum and the Nine Dragon Wall in the North Sea.
Brick wall: A large number of Han folk architecture, is the most important form of Chinese traditional wall. Some of the Xumi blocks are carved from stone, but they are extremely rare.
Stone screen wall: The screen wall moved to Beihai Park is completely carved out of stone and rarely appears in the folk.
Wooden screen wall: Because wooden materials are difficult to withstand long-term wind and sun exposure, it is generally rare.
Brick tile or adobe shadow wall: brick tile structure or adobe structure, the wall body completely covered with hemp ash, plain surface color, some also carved brick pattern or text.
Screen wall function:
Practical function: The screen wall plays the role of wind protection and warmth preservation, and it also facilitates privacy protection and blocks the view of outsiders. Even if the door is open, outsiders cannot see the house.
Feng Shui Function: In Feng Shui, the screen wall can not only "drive away ghosts", make the courtyard wide and deep, but also buffer the air flow, block evil spirits, and keep wealth and happiness.
Decorative function: The outer screen wall can increase the momentum of the gate, while the inner screen wall creates a harmonious, quiet and quiet environment. The exquisite layout and sculpture of screen wall play an important role in the decoration and beautification of the courtyard.
Glazed tiles, a preference in ancient Chinese architecture
Glazed tile is a traditional Chinese building material. It is molded with high-quality clay and then fired. The surface is glazed. The colors of the glaze are yellow, green, black, blue, purple, etc. It is magnificent and durable. Glazed tiles are mostly used in palace-style large-roof buildings with national colors. Through the modeling design, glazed products such as flower windows and railings have been made, which are widely used in courtyard decoration, leveling to slope, and steel structure projects.
China used glazed tiles as decorations in buildings as early as the Southern and Northern Dynasties. In the Yuan Dynasty, the palace buildings used glazed tiles on a large scale. The Ming Tombs and the Nine Dragon Walls were masterpieces in the history of glazed tile architecture.
The roof materials of ancient Chinese temple buildings are divided into glazed and terracotta tiles. Ordinary ceramic tiles are also called cloth tiles, which are rough in texture, strong in water absorption and easy to leak. Because the glazed side of glazed tile is smooth and does not absorb water, good waterproof performance can protect the house of wooden structure.
The word “glaze” originated from ancient Indian language and was introduced to China with the Buddhist culture. Its original representative color was blue. In addition to blue in modern times, Liuli also includes red, white, black, yellow, green, cyan and other colors. Glazed tiles that are glazed in various colors and fired at higher temperatures are therefore called glazed tiles.
China has a unique and long-standing architectural tradition dating back 2,500 years to the Zhou Dynasty. Explore the reasons behind its features and how Chinese architecture reflects Chinese culture. Since ancient times, the Chinese have built several traditional buildings, which are introduced here.
Since ancient times, the Chinese have used wooden structures, buildings made of rammed earth, and buildings made of stone or brick. Each of these buildings has different characteristics. They were all built to withstand frequent earthquakes, typhoons and floods, and were easier to rebuild. In addition to survivability and ease of renovation, the buildings reflect and contribute to the spread of social order and religion.
•1. Preference for Lumber Construction. Chinese culture originated along the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers. In a watershed environment, seismic activity and frequent flooding have prompted the flexibility to use renewable and workable wood for most buildings.
•2. Heavy Overhanging Roofs . A distinguishing feature of traditional wooden buildings is the heavy tiled roof with broad eaves and slightly upturned corners. It was thought important to cover wooden buildings with an overhanging roof, which protected the building from weathering, as wood rots faster when wet. The wide eaves also provide shade in summer, and in winter, slanted sunlight brings warmth into the room.
•3. Rammed Earth Buildings. In Hakka villages and other places where clan compounds are on the verge of being attacked, people build tulou（土楼）. In these compounds, thick rammed-earth walls, sometimes masonry, without windows, form a circle to create the interior dwellings.
NEW YORK CHINESE SCHOLAR’S GARDEN
The New York Chinese Scholar’s Garden (NYCSG) is one of two authentic classical outdoor Chinese gardens built in the United States.
The NYCSG is a compilation of different gardens in China. It is based on Ming Dynasty gardens (1368-1644 AD). All the architectural components of the NYCSG were fabricated in Suzhou, China, including roof and floor tiles, columns and beams, doors and windows, bridges and paving materials.
The garden features magnificent rocks resembling mountains that inspired the poetry and paintings of Confucian, Buddhist, and Taoist monks, as well as other scholars. Visitors can explore eight pavilions, a bamboo forest path, waterfalls, a Koi-filled pond, Chinese calligraphy, and a variety of Ghongshi scholar’s rocks including a 15-foot formation that towers over the central courtyard. A team of 40 Chinese artists and craftspeople spent a year in China creating the Garden’s components and another six months in Staten Island as craftsmen-in-residence at Snug Harbor to complete the construction.
Snug Harbor partnered with the City of New York, the Landscape Architecture Company of China, the Metropolitan Chinese American Community and hundreds of volunteers to build the NYCSG, which opened in 1999.
• Bridges and paths frequently zigzag, providing visitors with ever-changing vantages to experience the garden. Chinese philosophers also believed that zigzagging paths would throw off evil spirits.
Ancient Chinese architectural structures in the world
Ancient Chinese architectural structures in the world
Location: Metropolitan Museum of Art,New York, America
Mingxuan is a Chinese courtyard in New York. It was transplanted and constructed based on the “the Peony Study" in Suzhou Master of the Nets Garden, covering an area of 460 square meters. The building area is 230 square meters, which is the first example of China's garden export, creating a precedent for "garden art" foreign trade.
No.2 Garden of Flowing Fragrance
Location: Huntington Botanical Garden near Los Angeles, USA
This is a garden that enjoys the reputation of "Overseas Humble Administrator's Garden". It was officially opened to the public in 2008. It is adjacent to the Huntington Library and Art Collection and has a quiet environment. With the "Yingfang Lake" in the botanical garden as the center, 9 gardens and 18 sceneries are built according to spring, summer, autumn and winter, covering an area of about 90 acres. It is the largest Chinese garden in North America.
No.3 Chinese Scholar's Garden
Location:Inside the Staten Island Botanical Garden, New York, USA
Chinese Scholar's Garden was built in the late 1990s as the sister garden of Suzhou Lingering Garden. It is said that all the Taihu stones used for the revetment and stacking are shipped from the China. The pavilions in the garden, curved bridges and corridors, flower paving, walls and moon gate... constitute a garden space with a strong Chinese style, and even the architect I.M. Pei also praises this place.
These ancient buildings can be built with grey clay roof tiles. Luoyang Dannuo Gardens & Building Material Co., Ltd. is the manufacturer to produce the roof tiles, such as Chinese clay roof tiles, Japanese roof tiles, glazed roof tiles, screen wall, porcelain roof tiles, wood gazebo, clay brick wall decoration etc. They can be used for garden, pavilion, villa, temple, Chinatown etc. If you need it, please feel free to contact us. We will provide the suitable size of the tiles and design for you.
Grey tile in modern architecture
Grey tile in modern architecture
Grey tiles give people a kind of steady, elegant and calm artistic beauty. Chinese people like grey tiles, which is also closely related to the humble and stable traditional definition of our Chinese characters.
Grey tiles have excellent properties, which is a good proof that ancient Chinese buildings can survive thousands of years and are still well preserved. Grey tile has the characteristics of compression resistance, frost resistance, good air permeability, and good ductility. In recent years, it has become a product strongly recommended by architects. It is an ideal material for residential wall and pavement construction design and decoration.
Grey tiles are very practical and can be used to repair the relics of classical buildings, engineering buildings, business clubs, villas, star hotels, bars and ancient towns. It is also the preferred material for some Chinese-style classical residential buildings, antique communities, elderly care service centers, characteristic towns, and beautiful rural constructions.
Grey tiles are an important element of Chinese classical architecture, representing China's long-standing architectural sense of history and cultural connotation. It is the inheritance symbol of Chinese classical architectural culture. For modern people, the poetic dwelling is not high-rise buildings, but precisely in the traditional folk architectural culture formed by gray tiles.
How to pave glazed tiles in ancient style buildings
How to pave glazed tiles in ancient style buildings
How to lay glazed tiles? A question that many people think about when they see glazed tile roofs. I have thought about this before. My hometown is a rural village. I rarely see glazed roofs. But when I saw glazed roofs for the first time, it was obviously different from what I imagined. I was curious about how it was laid. Finally figure out how the glazed tile roof is laid. This time, the glazed tile manufacturer of ancient Dannuo buildings in Luoyang will also come to share with you!
The method of laying glazed tiles is different from the rural tiled houses I have seen before. In rural tile houses, you only need to build the sandalwood strips and build the tiles from top to bottom, from left to right, but the glazed tiles need to be glued with cement mortar to make the glazed tiles firmly fixed on the roof, and Roof waterproofing should be done during construction. Glazed tiles are heavier than the common blue tiles in rural areas, so their roofing capacity is correspondingly much larger, so the sandalwood strips should be thicker to ensure sufficient load-bearing capacity.
Laying glazed tiles generally follows this order: first calculate the interval of each tile, and use ink bombs on the roof to make the line and plan the location; then, according to the location of the bomb line, install the drip tiles first; then install Plate tiles; then install the hook head; finally put the tube tiles. You can start laying from right to left, or from left to right, but you must lay from bottom to top, because it uses cement mortar and lays from top to bottom, which will cause you to lay the tiles below, you need to lay the top tile. Lift it up so that this piece of tile can be clamped in. This will cause the glazed tile to be not solid.
If you want to build a glazed tile building but don’t know anything about it, please leave you message. Decades of accumulation are enough for us to provide high-quality products and professional engineers and teams. We are committed to providing you with satisfactory service.
A traditional Chinese pavilion
A traditional Chinese pavilion
Pavilions are a kind of traditional Chinese architecture, mostly built in gardens, Buddhist temples, and temples. Buildings built on the roadside or in the garden for people to rest, shelter from rain and cool off are small in size, mostly with roofs and no walls.
The materials are mostly wood, bamboo, stone, and reinforced concrete. In recent years, glass, metal, organic materials, etc. have also been introduced into this kind of architecture, giving the pavilion this ancient architectural system a modern and fashionable feeling.
About installation, We have installation instructions and drawings for installation. It's like a building block. We generally use Pinus sylvestris for wood. Pinus sylvestris has strong anti-moth and moisture-proof functions. The roof tiles use traditional Chinese grey tiles.
We generally use transparent varnish to achieve the function of strengthening Anti-insect and moisture-proof. You can choose other colors of paint and you can paint by yourself. About assemble. We use Chinese traditional tenon and tenon joint structure to match nails and screws.
White Horse Temple
White Horse Temple
Looking back at the White Horse Temple for thousands of years, is it the prosperous atmosphere of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, or the style of worshipping Buddha after the dream of Emperor Ming of the Han Dynasty? The scene of the former has been silent in the long river, and the "incense" of the latter is still swaying.
Today, the White Horse Temple in Luoyang, China, is one of the must-see places for Buddhist believers. Since the time of Emperor Ming of the Eastern Han Dynasty, with the introduction of Buddhism into China and the establishment of the first government-run monastery in Chinese history in Luoyang, the history of Buddhism in China also began in Luoyang.
Luoyang is the birthplace of Chinese Buddhism, and it has been the center of Buddhism for a long time since the Eastern Han Dynasty. As the first Buddhist temple in China, the White Horse Temple has a very far-reaching influence and plays an important role in the history of Buddhism. After so many years, the White Horse Temple is still flourishing and famous, and has influenced neighboring countries and regions, such as Myanmar, Japan, and Southeast Asia.
The Bell and Drum Tower is a very common building in monasteries, the morning bell and the evening drum are closely connected with it, but the Bell and Drum Tower in Baima Temple is a bit different. The clock tower was built in June 1991 with a donation of 4 million yen by Mr. Baoxing Nakamura from Japan and 600,000 yuan from the White Horse Temple. It is said that one of the eight scenic spots in Luoyang comes from here: the sound of the bell of the Horse Temple. Horse temple bells symbolize good luck and good luck, and are favored and loved by many Japanese.
The overall layout of the White Horse Temple is regular and simple in style. In addition to this courtyard, there are also Indian Buddhist Temple Gardens, Thailand Buddhist Temple Gardens, and Myanmar Buddhist Pagoda Gardens.
Why did ancient China like wooden buildings?
Why did ancient China like wooden buildings?
Some people say that ancient China was not capable of building western architecture, especially domes. For example, the famous Pantheon in the West, the Cathedral of our Lady of the Flowers, St. Peter's Cathedral and so on. One of the features of these buildings is that they have a big dome, which, when viewed from the inside, is spectacular and oppressive. Because of the mechanics and technology required to build such domes.
From the perspective of ancient Chinese architecture, this kind of architecture is relatively few, so many people think that ancient China did not have mechanics, so it could not build such a big domed building. Is the answer really so? Let's first understand why ancient Chinese people were not keen on stone architecture.
The first is the time to build. In terms of construction, wood buildings are easier to build than stone ones. Large stone buildings often take hundreds of years to build, and ancient Chinese dynasties did not have that much time to build such a palace. From the collection of stone, and then processing and transportation, the cost of manpower and material resources will only be more. Therefore, stone structures are generally used on walls, such as various grottoes and wall reliefs. And stone architecture is very hard on carvers, so carvers are very hard to find. But wood building engravers are easier to produce.
The second is ventilation and heat dissipation. Western stone buildings are defensive, so they are relatively closed. From the perspective of ventilation, the ventilation capacity of wooden buildings is stronger and the heat dissipation is faster. In addition to these, wooden buildings are more highly sculpted and more complex. Coupled with the unique structure, Chinese wooden buildings are even more brilliant in the history of world architecture.
The last is to resist the damage of earthquakes. Stone buildings are relatively hard buildings. When defending against earthquakes, cracks or collapses often appear, making it more difficult to repair. Wooden buildings have certain seismic performance. The ancients have long understood that, whether it is repair or earthquake resistance, as well as adaptability, wooden buildings have certain advantages. Of course, if the earthquake level is not enough, stone buildings also have advantages.
The beauty of the roofs of ancient buildings
The beauty of the roofs of ancient buildings
Chinese architecture is particularly large roof, the most striking thing about most ancient Chinese wooden buildings is that they are full of soft curved roof curve.It is different from the temple in European classical architecture. In order to correct the parallax, the middle cornice is raised slightly on purpose in pursuit of perfect form. Instead, the two ends are upturned.
In Chinese architectural complexes, the roof layer restricts the surrounding space, that is, the roof part is the core and initial part of the design.After the Song Dynasty, the reduction of the paving layer under the eaves made the aesthetic importance of the roof layer increased.The combination of roofs in Chinese pavilions is created to cater to different aesthetic tastes.
The beautiful silhouette of The roof of Chinese architecture encourages the extensive use of roof forms such as "Xieshan" and "Zanjian" in garden pavilions.Construction to avoid other people's ridge, including the Angle ridge point to, even in the garden layout management should not be the Angle ridge to the tourist concentration of the lot, because there is often a column under the Angle ridge, from the view of others and the view of two aspects of the analysis are not good.In this way, in the layout of buildings, people should avoid other ridges and corners of the roof.
On the whole, Chinese architecture not only has diachronic changes, showing the characteristics of architectural form, but also has synchronic regional cultural differences.When we pay attention to the commonness of Chinese architectural tradition, it is worth us to cherish their respective cultural heritage and further explore their respective vitality.
Ancient Chinese family ancestral temple building
Ancient Chinese family ancestral temple building
Ancestral temple is a kind of family temple with the same surname, which is inseparable from the gathering of families in ancient China.
In China's ancient feudal society, the concept of family was quite profound, and there was usually one family or several families living in each village. Most of them built their own temples to worship their ancestors. Such temples are generally called "ancestral temples", which can be divided into ancestral temples, branch temples and family temples.
In ancient times, the construction of ancestral temples is limited by grades, and the han people are not allowed to build ancestral halls.To the Ming dynasty did the emperor or the name of the marquis can be called "jia Miao", the rest called ancestral temple.Most of the temples have tall wall doors, gate towers, hip walls, main halls, hip roofs and other buildings, with wings on both sides of the main hall.The courtyard is stately and elegant with trees and flowers.
Functions of ancient ancestral temple：
(1) When the descendants of the family have weddings, funerals, birthdays and ceremonies, relatives use the spacious ancestral hall as a venue for activities;
(2) Ancestral temple is also the place where patriarchs exercise their clan power. If clannies violate clan rules, they will be educated and punished here, or even expelled from the ancestral temple. In a sense, ancestral temple is the court of feudal morality, which is the remnant of the feudal society, so it is not desirable.
(3) Ancestral temple can also serve as a social place for families to hold cultural entertainment and social activities such as entertaining guests.
(4) The ancestral hall of the big family is attached with a school for the children of the clansmen to study here.Just because the function of ancestral temple is so great, its architecture is quite exquisite.
What aspects can archaize architecture design proceed from?
What aspects can archaize architecture design proceed from?
In recent years, Chinese archaize architecture has been well developed, archaize architecture can not only make our architectural forms diversified, but also reflect the characteristics of Chinese culture, its unique charm has been re-examined by people, archaize architecture design has gradually become the focus of attention and research in the whole field of architecture.
For now, the design of Chinese style antique buildings without a strict system of rules, because it itself is a kind of design concept, rather than a particular classification of architectural form, so in the design of antique buildings, the basic theory of basic or follow the common architectural design, and combined with the characteristics of antique buildings, in general, can from the following several aspects.
1. Overall design
Architectural layout is the first step in the overall design of archaize architecture. Generally speaking, garden layout and axis layout can be adopted in two ways.
2. Detail design
After the completion of the basic layout of the building, it is necessary to start the detail design of the building. The detail design is the soul of archaize architectural design, which can make the whole building image plump. Generally speaking, there are the following aspects:
1) Architectural form design
Classification was apparent in the form of traditional Chinese architecture, the main tower pavilion, temple, hospital, etc, architectural form design step is mainly refer to the main form of Chinese traditional architecture, detail structure design of antique buildings, its core is the organic integration of a variety of traditional design element, establish a primary design form, again in the loading of other elements. For example, we can decide to take "siheyuan" as the main form of the building, so in the architectural design, we will take the courtyard as the building's constituent sub-unit, and add the temple, pavilion and other elements in each sub-unit. Such a design makes our building appear rich, but also has a core.
2) Strengthen the integration of archaize elements and modern elements
After all, ancient architecture is not ancient architecture, ancient architecture has great limitations in modern use, so now a lot of ancient architecture is actually loaded in modern architecture antique elements, Beijing West Railway Station is an example of this aspect. Beijing West Railway Station is a completely modern building, but it adopts Chinese traditional glazed tiles and pavilions on the roof of the building with originality, making it a typical case of perfect integration of modern elements and archaize elements. At the same time, also can join archaize element in adornment decoration, use hollow-out, carvings, hall layout and other forms to reflect archaize form, at the same time had the luxury of modern decoration, visual effect will be very good.
3). Design of archaize building materials
Chinese traditional buildings mainly use brick and wood structure, which makes Chinese traditional buildings have a big problem, that is, poor fire resistance and decay resistance, short service life, and great safety risks. On the other hand, modern wood resources are tight, large-scale use of wood is neither economic nor environmental protection, so the design of the material is also a very important factor in archaize design. Generally speaking, can do column with casting-in concrete, woodworking board is wrapped outside its, paint on burnish again, satisfied the visual effect of wooden column already so, saved wood again, enhanced intensity.
The charm of Ancient Chinese architecture -- stone carving
The charm of Ancient Chinese architecture -- stone carving
Stone carving it pays attention to realistic modeling, smooth and delicate technique, smooth and free grain type. Its traditional skills began in the Han Dynasty, matured in the Wei and Jin Dynasties, and became popular in the Tang Dynasty.
There are several categories of garden sculpture, architectural sculpture, animal and figure sculpture and handicraft, with hundreds of products: figure sculpture, relief, fountain, flower pot, Roman column, baluster, pavilion, stone stool, animal sculpture, tombstone, antique sculpture and so on. Stone carving has a long history. It pays attention to realistic modeling, smooth and delicate technique, smooth and free grain type. The sculpture products not only have the charm of ancient art, but also have the elegant and lively modern art style.
Stone carving is a collection of creative, design, production of various works of art. It is simply a work of art carved from stone.
Natural stone is solid and weathering resistant. Therefore, in architecture, in addition to stone pagoda, stone bridge, stone fang, stone pavilion, stone tomb, more widely used in architectural components and decoration. It can be roughly divided into three categories: one is the door frame, fence board, drum stone, steps and well circle as architectural components; Second, stone tablets, stone lions, stone huabiao and stone statues are attached to buildings; Third, as the furnishings in the building, such as stone incense burner, stone five for and so on.
The main classification
There is no unified national standard for many kinds of stone carvings, and it is difficult to classify them accurately. According to the development of recent years, combined with traditional habits, stone carvings can be divided into the following types of uses.
1, ornamental, hanging and collection of stone craft jewelry stone carvings.
2, grottoes and cliff stone carvings.
3. Stone carvings in the cemetery.
4, palaces, mansions and garden stone carvings.
5. Temple and altar stone carving.
6. Stone Bridge.
7. Archway stone carving.
8. tower building stone carving.
9. Monument book stone carving.
10. Stone carvings of people and animals.
11. life craft supplies stone carving.
12. Modern city gardens and memorial stone carvings.